Advanced topics in evidence-based urologic oncology: Surrogate endpoints
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Clinical trials often report surrogate endpoint data. A surrogate endpoint is a biological marker or clinical sign that can be substituted for a patient-important outcome. Using surrogate endpoints correctly may facilitate and expedite clinical trials and may improve medical decisions. However, rigorous criteria must be met for an endpoint to be considered a valid surrogate. The purpose of this article is to review the topic of surrogate endpoints in the context of a urologic encounter.
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