Risk Factors for Low Bone Mass-Related Fractures in Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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CONTEXT: Testing men at increased risk for osteoporotic fractures has been recommended. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of association and quality of supporting evidence linking multiple risk factors with low bone mass-related fractures in men. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Cochrane CENTRAL through February 2010. We identified further studies by reviewing reference lists from selected studies and reviews. STUDY SELECTION: Eligible studies had to enroll men and quantitatively evaluate the association of risk factors with low bone density-related fractures. DATA EXTRACTION: Reviewers working independently and in duplicate determined study eligibility and extracted study description, quality, and outcome data. DATA SYNTHESIS: Fifty-five studies provided data sufficient for meta-analysis. The quality of these observational studies was moderate with fair levels of multivariable adjustment and adequate exposure and outcome ascertainment. Statistically significant associations were established for age, low body mass index, current smoking, excessive alcohol use, chronic corticosteroid use, history of prior fractures, history of falls, history of hypogonadism, history of stroke, and history of diabetes. Statistical heterogeneity of the meta-analytic estimates of all associations was significant except for chronic corticosteroid use. None of these associations were of large magnitude (i.e. adjusted odds ratios were generally <2). No evidence supporting a particular effective testing or screening strategy was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple risk factors for fractures in men were identified, but their usefulness for stratifying and selecting men for bone density testing remains uncertain.
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