The Association of Albumin/Creatinine Ratio with Postoperative AKI in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study determined if preoperative and postoperative urine albumin/creatinine ratios (ACRs) predict postoperative AKI in children undergoing cardiac surgery (CS). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This was a three-center, prospective study (2007-2009) of 294 children undergoing CS (n=145 aged <2 years). Urine ACR was measured preoperatively and 0-6 hours after intensive care unit arrival. AKI outcomes were based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network serum creatinine (SCr) criteria (stage 1 AKI, ≥50% or 0.3 mg/dl SCr rise from baseline; and stage 2 or worse AKI, ≥SCr doubling or dialysis). AKI was predicted using preoperative and postoperative ACRs and postoperative ACR performance was compared with other AKI biomarkers. RESULTS: Preoperative ACR did not predict AKI in younger or older children. In children aged <2 years, first postoperative ACR ≥908 mg/g (103 mg/mmol) predicted stage 2 AKI development (adjusted relative risk, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-9.4). In children aged ≥2 years, postoperative ACR ≥169 mg/g (19.1 mg/mmol) predicted stage 1 AKI (adjusted relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.1). In children aged ≥2 years, first postoperative ACR improved AKI prediction from other biomarker and clinical prediction models, estimated by net reclassification improvement (P≤0.03), but only when serum cystatin C was also included in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative ACR is a readily available early diagnostic test for AKI after pediatric CS that performs similarly to other AKI biomarkers; however, its use is enhanced in children aged ≥2 years and in combination with serum cystatin C.