- Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically significant arrhythmia and is associated with considerable increase in morbidity and mortality. Its appropriate evaluation and management are therefore of paramount importance. Cardiac imaging plays a crucial role in this regard. Imaging permits the identification of cardiovascular conditions that predispose to the development and perpetuation of AF. Furthermore, imaging provides important information to refine strategies to prevent thromboembolic complications of the arrhythmia and allows characterization of the arrhythmogenic substrate itself. This capacity places imaging in a pivotal position in the workup and treatment of AF. This review provides a critical appraisal of the role of currently available imaging techniques for evaluating patients with AF. In addition, the importance of imaging in guiding AF therapy with respect to the prescription of anticoagulation, cardioversion, and radiofrequency catheter ablation techniques are summarized.