Procoagulant effects of lung cancer chemotherapy
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Lung cancer is the second leading type of cancer, with venous thromboembolism being the second leading cause of death. Studies have shown increased levels of microparticles and cell-free DNA (CFDNA) in cancer patients, which can activate coagulation through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively. However, the impact of lung cancer chemotherapy on microparticle and/or CFDNA generation is not completely understood. The aim of the study was to study the effects of platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents on generation of procoagulant microparticles and CFDNA in vitro and in vivo. Microparticles were isolated from chemotherapy-treated monocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, or cancer cells. Tissue factor (TF) and phosphatidylserine levels were characterized and thrombin/factor Xa generation assays were used to determine microparticle procoagulant activity. CFDNA levels were isolated from cell supernatants and plasma. A murine xenograft model of human lung carcinoma was used to study the procoagulant effects of TF microparticles and CFDNA in vivo. In vitro, platinum-based chemotherapy induced TF/phosphatidylserine microparticle shedding from A549 and A427 lung cancers cells, which enhanced thrombin generation in plasma in a FVII-dependent manner. CFDNA levels were increased in supernatants of chemotherapy-treated neutrophils and plasma of chemotherapy-treated mice. TF microparticles were elevated in plasma of chemotherapy-treated tumour-bearing mice. Plasma CFDNA levels are increased in chemotherapy-treated tumour-free mice and correlate with increased thrombin generation. In tumour-bearing mice, chemotherapy increases plasma levels of CFDNA and TF/phosphatidylserine microparticles. Platinum-based chemotherapy induces the shedding of TF/phosphatidylserine microparticles from tumour cells and the release of CFDNA from host neutrophils.
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