Fine-mapping of 98 obesity loci in Mexican children
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BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mexico has one of the highest prevalence of childhood obesity in the world. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for obesity have identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of European, East Asian, and African descent. The contribution of these loci to obesity in Mexican children is unclear. We assessed the transferability of 98 obesity loci in Mexican children and fine-mapped the association signals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 405 and 390 Mexican children with normal weight and obesity. Participants were genotyped with a genome-wide dense SNP array designed for Latino populations, allowing for the analysis of GWAS index SNPs as well as fine-mapping SNPs, totaling 750 SNPs covering 98 loci. Two genetic risk scores (GRS) were constructed: a "discovery GRS" and a "best-associated GRS", representing the number of effect alleles at the GWAS index SNPs and at the best-associated SNPs after fine-mapping for each subject. RESULTS: Seventeen obesity loci were significantly associated with obesity, and five had fine-mapping SNPs significantly better associated with obesity than their corresponding GWAS index SNPs in Mexican children. Six obesity-associated SNPs significantly departed from additive to dominant (N = 5) or recessive (N = 1) models, and a significant interaction was found between rs274609 (TNNI3K) and rs1010553 (ITIH4) on childhood obesity risk. The best-associated GRS was significantly more associated with childhood obesity (OR = 1.21 per additional risk allele [95%CI:1.17-1.25], P = 4.8 × 10-25) than the discovery GRS (OR = 1.05 per additional risk allele [95%CI:1.02-1.08], P = 8.0 × 10-4), and was also associated with waist-to-hip ratio, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and triglyceride levels, the association being mediated by obesity. An overall depletion of obesity risk alleles was observed in Mexican children with normal weight when compared to GWAS discovery populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates a partial transferability of GWAS obesity loci in Mexican children, and supports the pertinence of post-GWAS fine-mapping experiments in the admixed Mexican population.
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