Bone mineral density assessment in premenopausal women.
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In the absence of fragility fractures, low bone mineral density may reflect attainment of a lower peak bone mass in comparison with the young adult mean value. It is necessary to distinguish between low peak bone mass and a systemic disorder resulting in low bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Low peak bone mass in the absence of fragility fracture or progressive bone loss may not require pharmacological intervention. However, systemic disorders contributing to bone loss do require diagnosis and intervention. Common causes of low bone density in premenopausal women include ovulatory disturbances and low body weight. Other diseases, conditions or medications may also contribute to bone loss and these should be identified and treated if present. Fracture risk is reduced by lifestyle changes and pharmacological intervention in those with glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Discontinuing depo medroxyprogesterone acetate use has been associated with improvements in bone mineral density. Bone mineral density alone is insufficient for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in premenopausal women in the absence of fragility fractures. Bone mineral density testing should only be performed in premenopausal women in the presence of approved indications.
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