Distribution of somatostatin receptors on murine spleen and Peyer's patch T and B lymphocytes
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Recent evidence suggests that the neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM) plays an immunoregulatory role. We demonstrated previously that SOM inhibits concanavalin A-induced cell proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis by murine Peyer's patch and splenic lymphocytes. Available data suggest that these effects are in part mediated by specific SOM receptors expressed by lymphocytes, but as yet these receptors have not been characterized. Using cytofluorimetry we investigated the distribution and specificity of binding of fluorescent SOM (SOM*) to murine Peyer's patch and splenic T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations. The specificity of binding was confirmed by radioassay. T and B cells from both organs showed specific binding of SOM*. In Peyer's patches, approximately 50% of all cell populations studied (whole, T- and B-cell-enriched) bound SOM specifically and this was significantly higher than the corresponding splenic lymphocyte populations. Eighty to eighty-four percent of Peyer's patch Thy1.2+, Lyt1+, or L3T4+ cells and 94% of Lyt2+ cells bound SOM. Greater than 80% of B cells from this organ bound SOM (sIgA+ = sIgM+ greater than sIgG+ cells). In spleen, approximately 30% of Thy1.2+, Lyt1+, or L3T4+ cells bound SOM and this was significantly less than the proportion of Lyt2+ cells (53%) which did so. More sIgA+ (89%) than sIgG+ (66%) than sIgM+ (55%) B cells bound SOM*. Although we have previously shown that the effect of SOM on immunoglobulin synthesis was relatively isotype-specific (IgA synthesis was predominantly affected, especially in Peyer's patches) this cannot be explained solely on the basis of preferential expression of SOM receptors by distinct lymphocyte subsets. Instead, it is probably the result of the specific immunological microenvironment in which the lymphocytes reside.
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