Systematic review and meta-analysis: enhanced efficacy of proton-pump inhibitor therapy for peptic ulcer bleeding in Asia - a post hoc analysis from the Cochrane Collaboration
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BACKGROUND: Proton-pump inhibitors reduce re-bleeding rates after ulcer bleeding. However, there is significant heterogeneity among different randomized-controlled trials. AIM: To see whether proton-pump inhibitors for ulcer bleeding produced different clinical outcomes in different geographical locations. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of our Cochrane Collaboration systematic review and meta-analysis of proton-pump inhibitor therapy for ulcer bleeding. Sixteen randomized-controlled trials conducted in Europe and North America were pooled and re-analysed separately from seven conducted in Asia. We calculated pooled rates for 30-day all-cause mortality, re-bleeding and surgical intervention and derived odds ratios and numbers needed to treat with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There was no significant heterogeneity for any outcome. Reduced all-cause mortality was seen in the Asian randomized-controlled trials (odds ratios = 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.74; number needed to treat = 33), but not in the others (odds ratios = 1.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.96; number needed to treat--incalculable). There were significant reductions in re-bleeding and surgery in both sets of randomized-controlled trials, but the effects were quantitatively greater in Asia. CONCLUSIONS: Proton-pump inhibitor therapy for ulcer bleeding has been more efficacious in Asia than elsewhere. This may be because of an enhanced pharmacodynamic effect of proton-pump inhibitors in Asian patients.
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