Dichlorodiphenylchloroethylene Elevates Cytosolic Calcium Concentrations and Oscillations in Primary Cultures of Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells1
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1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of DDT (1,1-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), is a persistent hormonally active environmental toxicant that has been found in human serum and follicular fluid. The objective of this study was to determine whether DDE can alter free calcium ion concentrations in the cytosol ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) of human granulosa cells. Changes in [Ca(2+)](cyt) in single cells loaded with Fura-2 were studied using a dynamic digital Ca(2+) imaging system. At a concentration of 100 ng/ml, DDE stimulated small elevations of [Ca(2+)](cyt) accompanied by Ca(2+) oscillations. At 1 microg DDE/ml, there was a biphasic Ca(2+) response with marked elevations of [Ca(2+)](cyt) over time. In Ca(2+)-free medium, cells showed an initial small elevation of [Ca(2+)](cyt), which was magnified after addition of Ca(2+) to the medium. Washing the cells after DDE treatment failed to remove the elevated [Ca(2+)](cyt) and oscillations, both of which were eliminated by addition of EGTA. ATP also induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) elevations and oscillations, and these effects were potentiated when DDE was added. FSH induced transient [Ca(2+)](cyt) elevations, whereas hCG caused a prolonged elevation and marked oscillations in [Ca(2+)](cyt). These results suggest that DDE at concentrations normally found in human tissues induces elevations in [Ca(2+)](cyt) in granulosa-lutein cells. Our data therefore highlight a novel mechanism through which DDE can alter endocrine homeostasis and possibly act as an endocrine toxicant.
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