Non-stented versus stented urethroplasty for distal hypospadias repair: A systematic review and meta-analysis
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INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that non-stented distal hypospadias repair eliminates stent-related bladder spasm and stent removal discomfort without increasing complications; however, results are inconsistent. We performed a systematic review to assess the complication rates of non-stented compared to the stented distal hypospadias repair. METHODS: The literature search included randomized control trials (RCTs) and cohort studies published prior to October 2016 in all languages (PROSPERO CRD42016047563). All included studies were assessed according to Cochrane Collaborative recommendations and included for meta-analysis. Surgical outcomes from each treatment group were classified according to early complications and later final outcomes. Outcomes were expressed as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed using chi-square and I2. Effect estimates were pooled using the inverse variant method with random effect model. Subgroup analysis was performed according to surgical technique (Mathieu versus tubularized incised plate) and study design. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies (14 cohorts, 6 RCTs) with 2466 hypospadias repairs (1290 non-stented, 1176 stented) were included for the meta-analysis. Serious risk of bias was noted among the cohort studies with publication bias likely present, while the included RCTs were of moderate methodological quality. The overall pooled effect estimates comparing non-stented versus stented distal hypospadias repair showed no between-group difference for outcomes of early and late complications (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.46-1.50; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92, 1.48; respectively) CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence of low to moderate quality suggests that there is likely no outcome difference between non-stented and stented distal hypospadias repair.
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