Chemical specificity and physical properties of the lipid bilayer in the regulation of protein kinase C by anionic phospholipids: evidence for the lack of a specific binding site for phosphatidylserine.
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The association of protein kinase C (PKC) with membranes was found not to be specific for phosphatidyl-L-serine (PS). In particular, a synthetic phospholipid, dansyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, proved to be fully functional in the association of PKC with lipid bilayers and in mediating the interaction of this enzyme with diacylglycerol. Dansyl-phosphatidylethanolamine was also able to activate the enzyme in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. Differences in the ability to bind and activate PKC observed for an array of anionic lipids were not larger than alterations caused by changes in acyl chain composition. Thus, although different lipids interact to different extents with PKC, there are no specific binding sites for the PS headgroup on the enzyme. We found that lipids with a greater tendency to form inverted phases increased the binding of PKC to bilayers. However, these changes in lipid structure cannot be considered separately from the miscibility of lipid components in the membrane. For pairs of lipids with similar acyl chains, the dependence on PS concentration is sigmoidal, while for dissimilar acyl chains there is much less dependence of binding on PS concentration. The results can be explained in terms of differences in the lateral distribution of components in the membrane.
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