Effects of lipid structure on peptide-lipid interactions complexes of salmon calcitonin with phosphatidylglycerol and with phosphatidic acid
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The interactions of salmon calcitonin with a number of phospholipids are studied by electron microscopy, circular dichroism and the leakage of carboxyfluorescein. At room temperature, calcitonin reacts strongly with dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol and egg phosphatidic acid, while only moderate or no interaction is observed with several other phospholipids. The interaction is judged by the dissolution of the phospholipid dispersion and by electron microscopic observation and is in general concomitant with an increase in the helical content of the peptide. The electrostatic charge and the transition temperature of each of the phospholipids are important factors in determining the extent of reaction with salmon calcitonin. An exception is the sulphatide from bovine brain. The resulting morphology of the complex formed between salmon calcitonin and phosphatidic acid is quite different from that formed with phosphatidylglycerol. In the case of phosphatidylglycerol and most other negatively charged phospholipids, disc-shaped complexes are observed under the electron microscope by negative staining. The calcitonin- DMPG complexes are about 7 nm thick and their diameter increases with an increasing lipid-to-peptide ratio. In contrast, phosphatidic acids form spherical complexes with salmon calcitonin causing large multilamellar structures to spontaneously break-up into smaller particles of about 10 to 20 nm in diameter independent of the lipid-to-peptide ratio. The contrasting effects of salmon calcitonin on the morphology of these two phospholipids is explicable by consideration of the size of the lipid headgroup. Phosphatidic acid can accommodate the peptide without rupture of the bilayer, while the larger headgroup of phosphatidylglycerol requires the bilayer to rupture. This model is supported by studies of calcitonin-induced leakage of carboxyfluorescein from sonicated vesicles of 75% egg phosphatidylcholine and 25% either egg phosphatidic acid, egg phosphatidylglycerol or dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol . There was a much greater increase in carboxyfluorescein leakage from phosphatidylglycerol-containing vesicles induced by salmon calcitonin demonstrating the greater ability of the peptide to rupture bilayers containing this phospholipid.
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