Differential acid stabilities of citraconylated amino groups of glucagon Preparation of Nα-Citraconyl glucagon and evaluation of its biological properties
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Acylation of the alpha- and epsilon-amino groups of histidine-1 and lysine-12 in glucagon with citraconic anhydride resulted in the formation of amide bonds which displayed different stabilities to hydrolysis under mild acid conditions. Treatment of N alpha,epsilon-dicitraconyl glucagon at pH 4.0 and room temperature regenerated the free epsilon-amino group within 16 h, while the citraconyl-alpha-amino group was stable. N alpha-Citraconyl glucagon was purified by anion-exchange chromatography and was a weak partial agonist in stimulating adenylate cyclase in rat liver plasma membranes. The derivative exhibited 1% of the biological potency and 35-40% of the maximal stimulation of glucagon. Binding affinity to plasma membranes was also reduced, but not to as great an extent as adenylate cyclase activity. Removal of the alpha-citraconyl group by treatment with 10 mM HCl at 40 degrees C restored full potency and stimulation to glucagon. These results suggest that the N-terminal histidine of glucagon is involved in both binding to plasma membranes and transduction of the signal to adenylate cyclase.
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