Phospholipid structure determines the effects of peptides on membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies with pentagastrin-related peptides
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The effect of phospholipid structure on the interaction between small peptides and phospholipid membranes has been studied by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. The peptides used, N-Boc-beta-Ala-Trp-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 and N-Boc-beta-Ala-Trp-Met-Lys-Phe-NH2, are basic analogs of the hormone pentagastrin. These peptides split the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of synthetic phosphatidylcholines into two components. For dimyristoyl (DMPC), dipalmitoyl (DPPC) and 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl (SOPC) phosphatidylcholines, one component remains at the temperature corresponding to that of pure lipid and the other one is shifted towards higher temperatures. With increasing peptide concentration there is a gradual increase in the enthalpy of the high-temperature component at the expense of the low-temperature one, and there is also an increase in the total enthalpy of the transition. A mixture of the peptide with distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) behaves differently, with the transition occurring at a temperature below that of the pure lipid increasing with peptide concentration. The susceptibility of various phosphatidylcholines to perturbation by the peptides increases in the order DMPC greater than SOPC greater than DPPC greater than DSPC. The effect of these peptides on the phase transitions of acidic phosphatidylglycerols is generally greater than with the corresponding phosphatidylcholines, but the dependence on the length of lipid hydrocarbon chains is similar. Perturbation of the thermotropic phase transition is strongest for dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol, followed by the dipalmitoyl and the distearoyl analogs. The effect of the peptides on the phase transition of dimyristoylphosphatidylserine is significantly smaller compared to that observed with dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol and it is further reduced for dimyristoylphosphatidic acid. The phase transition of this latter lipid remains virtually unchanged, even in the presence of high concentrations of the peptide. Similar resistance to the perturbation of the phase transitions by the peptides is observed for synthetic phosphatidylethanolamine. The different susceptibility of various phospholipids to perturbation by the peptides is suggested to be related to different degrees of intermolecular interaction between phospholipid molecules, and particularly to different abilities of phospholipids to form intermolecular hydrogen bonding.
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