A comparison of the interaction of glucagon, human parathyroid hormone-(1-34)-peptide and calcitonin with dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol and with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine
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The interaction of glucagon, human parathyroid hormone-(1-34)-peptide and salmon calcitonin with dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was studied as a function of pH and temperature. The effect of lipid on the secondary structure of the peptide was assessed by circular dichroism and the effect of the peptide on the phase transition properties of the lipid was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. Some peptides interact more strongly with anionic than with zwitterionic phospholipids. This does not require an overall positive charge on the peptide. Increased thermal stability is observed in complexes formed between cationic peptides and anionic lipids. Particularly marked effects of glucagon and human parathyroid hormone-(1-34)-peptide on the phase transition properties of DMPG at pH 5 have been observed. The transition temperature is raised over 10 degrees C at a lipid/peptide molar ratio of less than 30:1 and the transition enthalpy is increased over 2-fold. These effects do not occur with any basic peptide and were not observed with metorphinamide, molluscan cardioexcitatory neuropeptide or myelin basic protein. The results demonstrate that certain peptides can affect the phase transition properties of lipids in a manner similar to divalent cations. The overall hydrophobicities of these peptides can be evaluated by their partitioning between aqueous and organic solvents. None of the above three peptide hormones partition into the organic phase. However, a closely related peptide, human calcitonin, does exhibit substantial partitioning into the organic phase. Nevertheless, human calcitonin has a weaker interaction with both DMPC and DMPG than does salmon calcitonin. The effects of human calcitonin on the phase transition of DMPC are qualitatively different from those of salmon calcitonin in that the human form more readily eliminates the pretransition but causes less change in the main transition. Like overall charge, overall hydrophobicity is not an overwhelming factor in determining the ability of peptides to interact with phospholipids but rather more specific interactions are required for strong complexes to form.
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