Role of peptide structure in lipid-peptide interactions: high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry and electron spin resonance studies of the structural properties of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes interacting with pentagastrin-related pentapeptides
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The effects of amino acid substitutions in the pentapeptide pentagastrin on the nature of its interactions with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) are assessed by differential scanning calorimetry and electron spin resonance. In two peptide analogues, the Asp at position 4 in pentagastrin (N-t-Boc-beta-Ala-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is replaced by Gly or Phe. These uncharged, more hydrophobic peptides have little effect on the transition temperature of DMPC, but they broaden the transition and lower the transition enthalpy as do integral membrane proteins. These peptides also mimic the behavior of integral membrane proteins in decreasing the order of a 5-doxylstearic acid spin probe below the transition temperature and in exhibiting a second immobilized lipid component using a 16-doxylstearic acid spin probe in DMPC. Three charged peptides were studied: pentagastrin, an analogue with positions 4 and 5 reversed (i.e., ending in Phe-Asp-NH2), and one with Asp replaced by Arg at position 4. All three of these charged peptides altered the phase transition behavior of DMPC to give two components, one above and one below the transition temperature of the pure lipid. With increasing peptide concentration, the higher melting transition became more prominent. The arginine-containing peptide produced the largest shifts in melting temperature followed by pentagastrin and then the "reversed" peptide. The arginine-containing peptide also increased the enthalpy of the transition. These peptides also increased the ordering of DMPC below the phase transition as measured with both 5- and 16-doxylstearic acid. The ordering effect was most pronounced with the arginine-containing peptide using the 5-doxylstearic acid probe. The results demonstrate that even the zwitterionic DMPC can interact more strongly with positively charged peptides than with negatively charged ones. In addition, peptide sequence as well as composition is important in determining the nature of peptide-lipid interactions. The markedly different effects of these pentagastrin peptides on the phase transition and motional properties of DMPC occur despite the similar depth of burial of these peptides with DMPC.