Diacylglycerols, lysolecithin, or hydrocarbons markedly alter the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperature of phosphatidylethanolamines
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The bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperatures of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylethanolamine are 65.6 and 71.4 degrees C, respectively. Using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry, I have shown that these transition temperatures are extremely sensitive to the presence of small amounts of other lipid components. For example, at a mole fraction of only 0.01, dilinolenin lowers the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperature of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine by 8.5 degrees C. Other diacylglycerols have similar effects on this transition temperature, although the degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains has some effect, with distearin being less potent. In comparison, the 20-carbon alkane eicosane lowers this transition temperature by 5 degrees C, while palmitoyl-lysolecithin raises it by 2.5 degrees C. Similar effects of these additives on the bilayer to to hexagonal phase transition temperature are observed with dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine. At these concentrations of additive, there is no effect on the gel-state to liquid-crystalline-state transition temperature. The observed shifts in the temperature of the bilayer to the hexagonal phase transition can be qualitatively interpreted in terms of the effects of these additives on the hydrophilic surface area and on the hydrophobic volume. Substances expanding the hydrophobic domain promote hexagonal phase formation and lower the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperature. The sensitivity of the bilayer to hexagonal phase transition temperature to the presence of additives is at least as great as that which has been observed for any other lipid phase transition.
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