Regression Analysis with a Misclassified Covariate from a Current Status Observation Scheme
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Naive use of misclassified covariates leads to inconsistent estimators of covariate effects in regression models. A variety of methods have been proposed to address this problem including likelihood, pseudo-likelihood, estimating equation methods, and Bayesian methods, with all of these methods typically requiring either internal or external validation samples or replication studies. We consider a problem arising from a series of orthopedic studies in which interest lies in examining the effect of a short-term serological response and other covariates on the risk of developing a longer term thrombotic condition called deep vein thrombosis. The serological response is an indicator of whether the patient developed antibodies following exposure to an antithrombotic drug, but the seroconversion status of patients is only available at the time of a blood sample taken upon the discharge from hospital. The seroconversion time is therefore subject to a current status observation scheme, or Case I interval censoring, and subjects tested before seroconversion are misclassified as nonseroconverters. We develop a likelihood-based approach for fitting regression models that accounts for misclassification of the seroconversion status due to early testing using parametric and nonparametric estimates of the seroconversion time distribution. The method is shown to reduce the bias resulting from naive analyses in simulation studies and an application to the data from the orthopedic studies provides further illustration.
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