Induction of interleukin-1 and interleukin-8 mRNAs and proteins by TGF beta 1 in rat lung alveolar epithelial cells.
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The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to increase in lung injury and in fibrotic states of the lung. In the current study, we sought to investigate whether TGF beta 1 induced the expression of IL-1 alpha and IL-8 in rat alveolar epithelial cells. We evaluated TGF beta 1, IL-1 alpha, and IL-8 expression by immunofluorescence in silica-injured and saline-treated control rat lungs. Antibodies to IL-1 alpha, IL-8, and TGF beta 1 showed intense staining in silica-injured lungs as compared to saline-instilled lungs. Primary isolated type II cells from silica-injured lungs showed increased expression of IL-1 alpha as compared to saline-instilled lungs. To evaluate the effects of TGF beta 1, we treated an immortalized rat type II cell-derived cell line (LM5) with 100 pg/ml of TGF beta 1 in serum-free medium for 0-24 hours and analyzed the expression of IL-1 alpha and IL-8 mRNAs and proteins using semiquantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot analysis, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Densitometric analysis of Northern blots showed modest constitutive expression of IL-1 alpha gene in untreated control LM5 cells. TGF beta 1 treatment resulted in an increase in IL-1 alpha mRNA, that reached maximum levels (4-fold) by 2 hours and remained elevated for 4-16 hours, with a subsequent decline by 24 hours. Similarly, Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that TGF beta 1 treatment resulted in maximum induction of IL-8 mRNA (6- 8.5-fold) within 1-4 hours. The levels remained elevated for up to 24 hours afterwards. Western blot analysis results further confirmed the expression of both IL-1 alpha and IL-8 proteins by LM5 cells. TGF beta 1 treatment resulted in increased expression of both IL-1 alpha and IL-8 proteins. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated increased staining of IL-1 alpha by TGF beta 1 as compared to untreated cells. These results suggest that TGF beta 1 may regulate IL-1 alpha and IL-8 expression in alveolar epithelial cells and contribute to polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment and lung injury in clinical states with increased TGF beta 1.
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