Evaluation of a novel closed-loop fluid-administration system based on dynamic predictors of fluid responsiveness: an in silico simulation study
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INTRODUCTION: Dynamic predictors of fluid responsiveness have made automated management of fluid resuscitation more practical. We present initial simulation data for a novel closed-loop fluid-management algorithm (LIR, Learning Intravenous Resuscitator). METHODS: The performance of the closed-loop algorithm was tested in three phases by using a patient simulator including a pulse-pressure variation output. In the first phase, LIR was tested in three different hemorrhage scenarios and compared with no management. In the second phase, we compared LIR with 20 practicing anesthesiologists for the management of a simulated hemorrhage scenario. In the third phase, LIR was tested under conditions of noise and artifact in the dynamic predictor. RESULTS: In the first phase, we observed a significant difference between the unmanaged and the LIR groups in moderate to large hemorrhages in heart rate (76 ± 8 versus 141 ± 29 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (91 ± 6 versus 59 ± 26 mm Hg), and cardiac output (CO; (6.4 ± 0.9 versus 3.2 ± 1.8 L/min) (P < 0.005 for all comparisons). In the second phase, LIR intervened significantly earlier than the practitioners (16.0 ± 1.3 minutes versus 21.5 ± 5.6 minutes; P < 0.05) and gave more total fluid (2,675 ± 244 ml versus 1,968 ± 644 ml; P < 0.05). The mean CO was higher in the LIR group than in the practitioner group (5.9 ± 0.2 versus 5.2 ± 0.6 L/min; P < 0.05). Finally, in the third phase, despite the addition of noise to the pulse-pressure variation value, no significant difference was found across conditions in mean, final, or minimum CO. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that LIR is an effective volumetric resuscitator in simulated hemorrhage scenarios and improved physician management of the simulated hemorrhages.
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