First prospective report on immune tolerance in poor risk haemophilia A inhibitor patients with a single factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate in an observational immune tolerance induction study
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INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Development of neutralizing inhibitors against factor VIII (FVIII) is a major complication of haemophilia A treatment. AIM: The ongoing, international, open-label, uncontrolled, observational immune tolerance induction (ObsITI) study evaluates ITI, the standard of care in patients with inhibitors. PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty-eight prospective patients in this interim analysis received a single plasma-derived, von Willebrand factor-stabilized, FVIII concentrate (pdFVIII/VWF) for ITI. According to recommended Bonn protocol, 'low responders' at ITI start (<5 BU) received 50-100 IU FVIII kg(-1) daily, or every other day; 'high responders' (≥5 BU) received 100 IU FVIII kg(-1) every 12 h. RESULTS: Forty of 48 patients (83.3%), had at least one risk factor for poor ITI-prognosis at ITI start (i.e. age ≥7 years, >2 years since inhibitor diagnosis, inhibitor titre ≥10 BU at the start of ITI, or prior ITI failure). Nonetheless, 34 patients (70.8%) achieved complete success, 3 (6.3%) partial success, 1 (2.1%) partial response; ITI failed in 10 patients (20.8%), all with poor prognosis factors. All six low responders achieved complete success. ITI outcome was significantly associated with inhibitor titre level at ITI start (P = 0.0068), number of poor prognosis factors for ITI success (P = 0.0187), monthly bleeding rate during ITI (P = 0.0005) and peak inhibitor titre during ITI (P = 0.0007). Twenty-two of 35 high responder patients (62.9%) with ≥1 poor prognosis factor achieved complete success. CONCLUSION: Treatment with a single pdFVIII/VWF concentrate, mainly according to the Bonn protocol, resulted in a high ITI success rate in haemophilia A patients with inhibitors and poor prognosis for ITI success.
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