Dyslipidemia in Children With Arterial Ischemic Stroke: Prevalence and Risk Factors
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BACKGROUND: Risk factors for pediatric stroke are poorly understood and require study to improve prevention. Total cholesterol and triglyceride values peak to near-adult levels before puberty, a period of increased stroke incidence. The role of lipids in childhood arterial ischemic stroke has been minimally investigated. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of lipid and Lp(a) concentrations in children with arterial ischemic stroke in the International Pediatric Stroke Study to compare the prevalence of dyslipidemia and high- or low-ranking lipid values in our dataset with reported population values. We analyzed sex, body mass index, race, ethnicity, family history, and stroke risk factors for associations with dyslipidemia, high non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. RESULTS: Compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a higher proportion of children ≥5 years with arterial ischemic stroke had dyslipidemia (38.4% versus 21%), high total cholesterol (10.6% versus 7.4%), high non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (23.1% versus 8.4%), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (39.8% versus 13.4%). The lipid values that corresponded to one standard deviation above the mean (84th percentile) in multiple published national studies generally corresponded to a lower ranking percentile in children aged five years or older with arterial ischemic stroke. Dyslipidemia was more likely associated with an underweight, overweight, or obese body mass index compared with a healthy weight. Ethnic background and an acute systemic illness were also associated with abnormal lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia may be more prevalent in children with arterial ischemic stroke compared with stroke-free children.
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