Novel Sequence Features of DNA Repair Genes/Proteins from Deinococcus Species Implicated in Protection from Oxidatively Generated Damage
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Deinococcus species display a high degree of resistance to radiation and desiccation due to their ability to protect critical proteome from oxidatively generated damage; however, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Comparative analysis of DNA repair proteins reported here has identified 22 conserved signature indels (CSIs) in the proteins UvrA1, UvrC, UvrD, UvsE, MutY, MutM, Nth, RecA, RecD, RecG, RecQ, RecR, RuvC, RadA, PolA, DnaE, LigA, GyrA and GyrB, that are uniquely shared by all/most Deinococcus homologs. Of these CSIs, a 30 amino acid surface-exposed insert in the Deinococcus UvrA1, which distinguishes it from all other UvrA homologs, is of much interest. The uvrA1 gene in Deinococcus also exhibits specific genetic linkage (predicted operonic arrangement) to genes for three other proteins including a novel Deinococcus-specific transmembrane protein (designated dCSP-1) and the proteins DsbA and DsbB, playing central roles in protein disulfide bond formation by oxidation-reduction of CXXC (C represents cysteine, X any other amino acid) motifs. The CXXC motifs provide important targets for oxidation damage and they are present in many DNA repair proteins including five in UvrA, which are part of Zinc-finger elements. A conserved insert specific for Deinococcus is also present in the DsbA protein. Additionally, the uvsE gene in Deinococcus also shows specific linkage to the gene for a membrane-associated protein. To account for these novel observations, a model is proposed where specific interaction of the Deinococcus UvrA1 protein with membrane-bound dCSP-1 enables the UvrA1 to receive electrons from DsbA-DsbB oxido-reductase machinery to ameliorate oxidation damage in the UvrA1 protein.
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