Fibromyalgia presents a clinical enigma as its pathophysiology is not well understood and its symptoms are nonspecific and overlap with many disorders, making its diagnosis a challenge for clinicians and researchers. Efforts have been made to develop a set of diagnostic criteria for this disorder. However, these criteria rely heavily on expert clinician opinion and produce a large heterogeneity within the diagnosed population. With no present specific technique reflecting the underlying pathophysiology of fibromyalgia, a definitive diagnosis of fibromyalgia remains elusive. This review discusses some problems and challenges associated with fibromyalgia diagnosis and presents some novel findings on the pathophysiological nature of fibromyalgia.