Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among young children during the 2010-11 to 2013-14 influenza seasons in Ontario, Canada
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Uncertainty remains regarding the magnitude of effectiveness of influenza vaccines for preventing serious outcomes, especially among young children. We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among children aged 6-59 months. We used the test-negative design in hospitalized children in Ontario, Canada during the 2010-11 to 2013-14 influenza seasons. We used logistic regression models adjusted for age, season, and time within season to calculate VE estimates by vaccination status (full vs. partial), age group, and influenza season. We also assessed VE incorporating prior history of influenza vaccination. We included specimens from 9,982 patient hospitalization episodes over four seasons, with 12.8% testing positive for influenza. We observed variation in VE by vaccination status, age group, and influenza season. For the four seasons combined, VE was 60% (95%CI, 44%-72%) for full vaccination and 39% (95%CI, 17%-56%) for partial vaccination. VE for full vaccination was 67% (95%CI, 48%-79%) for children aged 24-59 months, 48% (95%CI, 12%-69%) for children aged 6-23 months, 77% (95%CI, 47%-90%) for 2010-11, 59% (95%CI, 13%-81%) for 2011-12, 33% (95%CI, -18% to 62%) for 2012-13, and 72% (95%CI, 42%-86%) for 2013-14. VE in children aged 24-59 months appeared similar between those vaccinated in both the current and previous seasons and those vaccinated in the current season only, with the exception of 2012-13, when VE was lower for those vaccinated in the current season only. Influenza vaccination is effective in preventing pediatric laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations during most seasons.
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