Bullying among immigrant and non-immigrant early adolescents: School- and student-level effects
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We examined the association between school immigrant concentration and bullying among immigrant and non-immigrant early adolescents, and identified potential explanatory factors. First generation immigrant students had reduced odds of victimization and perpetration in schools with high (20-60%), compared to low, levels of immigrant concentration. Second generation immigrant students had reduced odds of ethnic/racial victimization in moderately concentrated schools; while non-immigrants had increased odds in the same schools. Non-white students had increased odds of ethnic/racial victimization compared to White students. While students' sense of school belonging and perceived teacher cultural sensitivity were negatively associated with bullying, they did not account for the differential associations noted above. Results demonstrate the importance of immigrant density as a protective school characteristic for immigrant and ethnic minority youth. Additional social processes operating in schools that may explain bullying behaviors among immigrant and non-immigrant youth should be explored to inform programs for promoting inclusion in schools.
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