Vitamin D and progression of carotid intima-media thickness in HIV-positive Canadians
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OBJECTIVES: Based on a growing body of evidence implicating low vitamin D status in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), we hypothesized that in Canadian HIV-positive adults, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration would be associated with increased subclinical vascular disease progression. METHODS: We prospectively studied the relationship between baseline 25(OH)D and subsequent progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between 2002 and 2011, in the Canadian HIV Vascular Study using stored blood specimens. RESULTS: Of the 128 participants, 89.1% were men, the mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 46.5 (8.2) years, 93.8% were white, and 36.7% were current smokers. Mean (SD) annual CIMT follow-up was 5.9 (1.8) years (maximum 8.5 years), providing approximately 750 patient-years of follow-up. Mean (SD) CIMT progression was 0.027 (0.030) mm/year. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D was 95.0 (46.9) nmol/L. Only 13.3% of participants were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L), whereas 61.7% had a 25(OH)D exceeding the sufficiency threshold (75 nmol/L). Vitamin D quartiles were inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.034), total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (P = 0.001) and parathyroid hormone concentration (P = 0.003), but not efavirenz exposure (P = 0.141). In linear regression analyses, baseline 25(OH)D as a continuous variable was inversely associated with CIMT progression in univariable (P < 0.001) and multivariable (P < 0.001) models. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline 25(OH)D was associated with CIMT progression in this relatively vitamin D replete, predominately white and male, Canadian HIV-positive population. Future research needs to establish causality as this may warrant more targeted screening or supplementation.
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