Bonding reactivity descriptor from conceptual density functional theory and its applications to elucidate bonding formation
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Condensed-to-atom Fukui functions which reflect the atomic reactivity like the tendency susceptible to either nucleophilic or electrophilic attack demonstrate the bonding trend of an atom in a molecule. Accordingly, Fukui functions based concepts, that is, bonding reactivity descriptors which reveal the bonding properties of molecules in the reaction were put forward and then applied to pericyclic and cluster reactions to confirm their effectiveness and reliability. In terms of the results from the bonding descriptors, a covalent bond can readily be predicted between two atoms with large Fukui functions (i.e., one governs nucleophilic attack while the other one governs electrophilic attack, or both of them govern radical attacks) for pericyclic reactions. For SinOm clusters' reactions, the clusters with a low O atom ratio readily form a bond between two Si atoms with big values of their Fukui functions in which they respectively govern nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks or both govern radical attacks. Also, our results from bonding descriptors show that Si-Si bonds can be formed via the radical mechanism between two Si atoms, and formations of Si-O and O-O bonds are possible when the O content is high. These results conform with experimental findings and can help experimentalists design appropriate clusters to synthesize Si nanowires with high yields. The approach established in this work could be generalized and applied to study reactivity properties for other systems.
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