Management of Stage I Seminomatous Testicular Cancer: a Systematic Review
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The treatment options available for the management of stage I seminoma consist of either a surveillance strategy or adjuvant therapy after orchidectomy. A systematic review was undertaken to identify the optimal management strategy. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, in addition to the American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting Proceedings, were searched for the period 1981 to May 2007. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they discussed at least one of survival, recurrence, second malignancy, cardiac toxicity, or quality of life for patients with stage I seminoma. A search update was carried out in June 2009. Fifty-four reports satisfied the eligibility criteria, including seven clinical practice guidelines, one systematic review, three randomised controlled trials focused on treatment options, 26 non-randomised studies of treatment options, and 15 non-randomised long-term toxicity studies. The existing data suggest that virtually all patients with stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of the post-orchidectomy management. The 5-year survival reported in all the studies identified in this systematic review was over 95%, regardless of the management strategy, including surveillance alone with no adjuvant therapy. In conclusion, to date, the optimal management of stage I seminoma remains to be defined. Surveillance seems to be the preferable option, as this strategy minimises the toxicity that might be associated with adjuvant treatment, while preserving high long-term cure rates. The currently available evidence should be presented to patients in order to select the most appropriate option for the individual.