An evaluation of WHA resolution 45.5: health human resource implications. Academic Article uri icon

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  • The World Health Assembly approved resolution WHA45.5 in 1992. This paper reports the findings of an evaluation of the implementation of this resolution using a survey technique. A total of 150 WHO Member States responded, for a 79% response rate. Findings suggest that the greatest strides worldwide have been made in education. While the data show that progress has been made at the country level, far more action is needed to strengthen nursing and midwifery if these cost-effective resources are to play a decisive role in improving the extent and quality of services, especially as delivered to people in the greatest need.


  • O'Brien-Pallas, L
  • Hirschfeld, M
  • Baumann, Margaret Andrea
  • Shamian, J
  • Adams, O
  • Bajnok, I
  • Isaacs, E
  • Land, S
  • Salvage, J
  • Bisch, SA
  • Miller, T
  • Islam, A
  • Luba, M

publication date

  • December 1999