Heat capacity of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate and of its components, and the clathrate formation from supercooled melt
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We report a thermodynamic study of the formation of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate by explosive crystallization of water-deficient, near stoichiometric, and water-rich solutions, as well as of the heat capacity, C(p), of (i) supercooled tetrahydrofuran-H2O solutions and of the clathrate hydrate, (ii) tetrathydrofuran (THF) liquid, and (iii) supercooled water and the ice formed on its explosive crystallization. In explosive freezing of supercooled solutions at a temperature below 257 K, THF clathrate hydrate formed first. The nucleation temperature depends on the cooling rate, and excess water freezes on further cooling. The clathrate hydrate melts reversibly at 277 K and C(p) increases by 770 J/mol K on melting. The enthalpy of melting is 99.5 kJ/mol and entropy is 358 J/mol K. Molar C(p) of the empty host lattice is less than that of the ice, which is inconsistent with the known lower phonon frequency of H2O in the clathrate lattice. Analysis shows that C(p) of THF and ice are not additive in the clathrate. C(p) of the supercooled THF-H2O solutions is the same as that of water at 247 K, but less at lower temperatures and more at higher temperatures. The difference tends to become constant at 283 K. The results are discussed in terms of the hydrogen-bonding changes between THF and H2O.
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