A EuII-Containing Cryptate as a Redox Sensor in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Living Tissue
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The Eu(II) ion rivals Gd(III) in its ability to enhance contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. However, all reported Eu(II)-based complexes have been studied in vitro largely because the tendency of Eu(II) to oxidize to Eu(III) has been viewed as a major obstacle to in vivo imaging. Herein, we present solid- and solution-phase characterization of a Eu(II)-containing cryptate and the first in vivo use of Eu(II) to provide contrast enhancement. The results indicate that between one and two water molecules are coordinated to the Eu(II) core upon dissolution. We also demonstrate that Eu(II)-based contrast enhancement can be observed for hours in a mouse.
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