Adverse outcomes associated with opioid prescription for acute low back pain: a systematic review protocol
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BACKGROUND: Acute low back pain (ALBP) is the top cause of global disability, demonstrating a significant impact on individuals and society and demanding the need for appropriate management. There is a trend towards an increasing number of opioid prescriptions for ALBP despite the lack of investigation for its various short- and long-term outcomes. The objective of this review is to examine adverse outcomes associated with opioid use for ALBP. METHODS/DESIGN: Using a search strategy, the search will be conducted using the following electronic databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP). We will include randomized clinical trials and observational studies investigating the impact of opioid use in ALBP in the adult population. All phases of screening, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality will be performed by two independent reviewers. We will perform quality and risk of bias assessment for the included articles and compare high and low risk of bias with a sensitivity analysis. We will conduct random- and fixed-effects meta-analyses with heterogeneity calculated using the I 2 statistic and evaluate publication bias. DISCUSSION: There are current guidelines published to alert clinicians in prescribing opioids for ALBP due to its likelihood of misuse, yet there is little change in prescribing patterns. To date, there is an absence of systematic information about the outcomes of prescription opioid in patients with ALBP. We will address this gap by providing evidence that will be useful for clinical practice. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016033090.
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