Influence of the HDL Receptor SR-BI on Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis
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The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) was the first molecularly well-defined cell-surface HDL receptor to be described. SR-BI mediates selective HDL cholesterol uptake by formation of a productive lipoprotein/receptor complex, which requires specific structural domains and conformation states of apolipoprotein A-I present in HDL particles. SR-BI is abundantly expressed in several tissues, including the liver, where its expression is regulated by various mechanisms, including the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors. The importance of SR-BI in overall HDL cholesterol metabolism and its antiatherogenic activity in vivo has been definitively established by SR-BI gene manipulation in mice. Remarkably, SR-BI/apolipoprotein E double-knockout mice develop complex coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Additional studies should help to define the importance of SR-BI in human health and disease.
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