Quantification of bone strontium levels in humans byin vivox-ray fluorescence
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The need for in vivo bone strontium assessment arises because strontium may exert a number of effects on bone, which may be either beneficial or toxic. Measurements discussed here are noninvasive, no sample is taken, nor is there discomfort to patients. The developed source excited x-ray fluorescence system employs a 109Cd source to excite the strontium K x rays, with the source and detector in approximately 90 degree geometry relative to the sample position. The factors affecting the accuracy and minimal detectable limit for bone strontium in vivo measurements are discussed. A system calibration revealed a minimum detectible limit of approximately 0.25 mg Sr/g Ca, which is sufficient for the monitoring of strontium levels in healthy subjects and patients with elevated bone strontium concentrations. Preliminary in vivo measurements in ten healthy subjects at two bone sites (phalanx and tibia) indicated that this system can be applied for cumulative bone strontium estimation while delivering a low effective dose of 80 nSv during the measurement time. Future work will involve attempts to enhance system precision with alternative fluorescing sources and further optimization of the detection system.
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