How to allocate computing and communication resources in a way that maximizes the effectiveness of control and signal processing, has been an important area of research. The characteristic of a multi-hop Real-Time Wireless Sensor Network raises new challenges. First, the constraints are more complicated and a new solution method is needed. Second, a distributed solution is needed to achieve scalability. This article presents solutions to both of the new challenges. The first solution to the optimal rate allocation is a centralized solution that can handle the more general form of constraints as compared with prior research. The second solution is a distributed version for large sensor networks using a pricing scheme. It is capable of incremental adjustment when utility functions change. This article also presents a new sensor device/network backbone architecture---Real-time Independent CHannels (RICH), which can easily realize multi-hop real-time wireless sensor networking.