Thermal inactivation of poliovirus type 1 in water, milk and yoghurt
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Loss of infectivity of poliovirus type 1, strain Sabin, during heating, freezing, and storage in water, milk and yoghurt was determined by plaque-titration in Vero cell cultures. The heating experiments simulated the conditions arising during the processing of milk and yoghurt, for example high-temperature heating (95 degrees C, 15 and 30 s), short-time pasteurization (72 degrees C, 15 and 30 s), long-time pasteurization (62 degrees C, 30 min), and yoghurt-fermentation (42 degrees C, 30 min and 180 min). Only high-temperature heating, long-time pasteurization and short-time pasteurization for 30 s proved to be reliable methods of inactivating polioviruses present in water, milk and yoghurt completely. Short-time pasteurization for 15 s and the conditions of yoghurt-fermentation failed to cause complete inactivation of polioviruses. Additionally, polioviruses mixed in milk or yoghurt withstood these procedures with significantly lower reductions of infectivity than in water. Heating at 55 degrees C for 30 min resulted in complete inactivation of polioviruses, regardless of the suspending medium. The infectivity of polioviruses is scarcely affected by freezing (-20 degrees C, 30 min) and storage (24 days) at low temperatures (4 degrees C) and high humidity (a(w) = 0.99).
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