PHOTOCHEMISTRY, PHOTOPHYSICS, AND MECHANISM OF PYRIMIDINE DIMER REPAIR BY DNA PHOTOLYASE Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • DNA photolyases photorepair pyrimidine dimers (Pyr < > Pyr) in DNA as well as RNA and thus reverse the harmful effects of UV-A (320-400 nm) and UV-B (280-320 nm) radiations. Photolyases from various organisms have been found to contain two noncovalently bound cofactors; one is a fully reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH-) and the other, commonly known as second chromophore, is either methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) or 8-hydroxydeazaflavin (8-HDF). The second chromophore in photolyase is a light-harvesting molecule that absorbs mostly in the near-UV and visible wavelengths (300-500 nm) with its high extinction coefficient. The second chromophore then transfers its excitation energy to the FADH-. Subsequently, the photoexcited FADH- transfers an electron to the Pyr < > Pyr generating a dimer radical anion (Pyr < > Pyr.-) and a neutral flavin radical (FADH.). The Pyr < > Pyr.- is very unstable and undergoes spontaneous splitting followed by a back electron transfer to the FADH.. In addition to the main catalytic cofactor FADH-, a Trp (Trp277 in Escherichia coli) in apophotolyase, independent of other chromophores, also functions as a sensitizer to repair Pyr < > Pyr by direct electron transfer.

publication date

  • May 1993