A phase II study of the oral factor Xa inhibitor LY517717 for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip or knee replacement
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BACKGROUND: LY517717 is an oral direct inhibitor of activated factor X that is currently under clinical development. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this proof-of-concept study in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) or total hip replacement (THR) were to determine whether LY517717 can safely reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and to identify at least one dose of LY517717 that is non-inferior to enoxaparin. METHODS: In a double-blind, parallel-arm, dose-ranging study, patients undergoing TKR or THR were randomly allocated to receive once-daily oral LY517717 (25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 mg), started 6-8 h after wound closure, or s.c. enoxaparin, 40 mg, started in the evening before surgery. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), detected by mandatory bilateral venography performed at the end of the study treatment (between days 5 and 9), and objectively confirmed symptomatic DVT and/or pulmonary embolism (PE), occurring during the treatment period. The combination of major and minor bleeding was the primary safety endpoint. RESULTS: Five hundred and seven patients received at least one dose of LY517717 or enoxaparin (safety population). Three hundred and ninety-one patients had evaluable bilateral venography or experienced a clinical DVT and/or PE (primary efficacy population). LY517717 treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the incidence of thromboembolic events (P = 0.0001). The incidences of VTE with 100, 125, and 150 mg of LY517717 were 19%, 19% and 16%, respectively, compared to 21% with enoxaparin. The efficacies of 100-mg, 125-mg and 150-mg doses of LY517717 were non-inferior to that of enoxaparin according to prespecified criteria. Bleeding events were uncommon in both LY517717 and enoxaparin patients. CONCLUSIONS: Doses of 100, 125 and 150 mg of LY517717 are non-inferior to enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE after TKR or THR, and are associated with similar low rates of bleeding.
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