IMPACT OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID ON FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) FATTY ACYL-COA OXIDASE ACTIVITY, CIRCULATING STEROIDS, AND REPRODUCTION IN OUTDOOR MICROCOSMS
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This study investigates reproductive impairment and biochemical changes in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 39 d to varying concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) under microcosm conditions. While the concentrations tested in this study were much higher than those normally found in the environment, no mortality was associated with PFOA exposure. Only modest changes were observed in condition factor and in relative liver and gonad size. Significant declines in circulating plasma steroids were observed, but these were accompanied by only limited increases in time to first oviposition and decreases in overall egg production. Peroxisome proliferation, as quantified by fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FAO) activity, was elevated with low PFOA concentrations but attenuated with exposure to higher PFOA doses. Little evidence was seen of differential induction of peroxisome-associated enzyme activity with sex. Oxidative stress, as quantified by the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, was only modestly influenced by PFOA exposure and is not a significant consequence of FAO activity in fathead minnow. Perfluorooctanoic acid appears to be relatively nontoxic at environmentally relevant concentrations but may impact biochemical and reproductive endpoints under conditions associated with environmental spills.
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