Assays on the Influence of Biomaterials on Allogeneic Rejection in Tissue Engineering
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In tissue engineering, innate responses to biomaterial scaffolds will affect rejection of allogeneic cells. Biomaterials directly influence innate and adaptive immune cell adhesion, reactive oxygen intermediate production, cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-kappa B nuclear translocation, gene expression, and cell surface markers, all of which are likely to affect allogeneic rejection responses. A major goal in tissue engineering is to induce transplant tolerance, potentially by manipulating the biomaterial component. This review describes methods of measuring responses of macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells stimulated in vitro and in vivo and addresses key factors in assay development. Such tests include mixed leukocyte reactions, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays, trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity assays, and measurement of dendritic cell subsets and anti-donor antibodies; we propose extending these studies to tissue engineering.
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