On the Role of Knowledge of Results in Motor Learning
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Recent work on the role of knowledge of results (KR) in motor learning has challenged some traditional assumptions. In particular, the guidance hypothesis suggests that there is a detriment to learning when KR guides the learner toward correct performance. Three experiments that explored this hypothesis are reported here. These experiments contrasted the effects of relative frequency of guidance versus the relative frequency of KR. According to the guidance hypothesis, it was predicted that parallel effects of the relative frequency manipulation on motor learning and performance would result under guided and KR conditions. The movement task was a reciprocal timing task that was either paced by a metronome (Experiment 1) or augmented by auditory KR (Experiments 2 and 3). The results of Experiments 1 and 3 revealed a number of parallel effects, thus providing support for the guidance hypothesis. The contrast of Experiments 1 and 2 resulted in a number of dissociable effects, however. These findings are discussed in relation to the potential guiding properties of KR and their impact on motor performance and learning.
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