Surgical approaches to juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma
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INTRODUCTION: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are highly vascular, non-encapsulated tumours affecting predominantly young males. These lesions are benign histologically but they may become life-threatening with excessive bleeding or intracranial extension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The surgical approaches to 22 male patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are reviewed. A modification of midfacial degloving performed without rhinoplasty incisions and lateral osteotomies is described. RESULTS: The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 26 years (mean 14.9). Three stage I tumours, 8 stage II tumours, 6 stage III tumours and 5 stage IV tumours were included into this study. All stage I lesions and one stage II lesion were treated via transnasal endoscopic approach. A modified midfacial degloving approach was used for the removal of seven other stage II lesions, all six stage III lesions, and three stage IV lesions. A combined midfacial degloving-infratemporal fossa Fisch C-transcranial approach was the route chosen for the remaining two stage IV lesions. The complications encountered in the postoperative course include temporary facial palsy in one patient (following a Fisch C infratemporal resection), mild crusting in the nasal cavity in 8 patients, and facial paraesthesia in 6 patients whose tumours were resected via midfacial degloving, and rupture of the subpetrous part of the internal carotid artery in one patient. CONCLUSION: The suggested treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma consists of an endoscopic transnasal approach for early stage lesions, and a modified midfacial degloving for almost all of the advanced lesions. The latter approach is very useful considering surgical exposure, duration of surgery, cosmetic outcome, and morbidity. It can be combined with an infratemporal approach or craniotomy if necessary.
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