In vitrodrug release of natamycin from β-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-functionalized contact lens materials
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PURPOSE: The antifungal agent natamycin can effectively form inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) to improve the water solubility of natamycin by 16-fold and 152-fold, respectively (Koontz, J. Agric. Food. Chem. 2003). The purpose of this study was to develop contact lens materials functionalized with methacrylated β-CD (MβCD) and methacrylated HP-βCD (MHP-βCD), and to evaluate their ability to deliver natamycin in vitro. METHODS: Model conventional hydrogel (CH) materials were synthesized by adding varying amounts of MβCD and MHP-βCD (0, 0.22, 0.44, 0.65, 0.87, 1.08% of total monomer weight) to a monomer solution containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Model silicone hydrogel (SH) materials were synthesized by adding similar concentrations of MβCD and MHP-βCD to N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA)/10% 3-methacryloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane (TRIS). The gels were cured with UV light, washed with ethanol and then, hydrated for 24 h (h). The model materials were then incubated with 2 mL of 100 μg/mL of natamycin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4 for 48 h at room temperature. The release of natamycin from these materials in 2 mL of PBS, pH 7.4 at 32 ± 2 °C was monitored using UV-vis spectrophotometry at 304 nm over 24 h. RESULTS: For both CH and SH materials, functionalization with MβCD and MHP-βCD improved the total amount of drugs released up to a threshold loading concentration, after which further addition of methacrylated CDs decreased the amount of drugs released (p < 0.05). The addition of CDs did not extend the drug release duration; the release of natamycin by all model materials reached a plateau after 12 h (p < 0.05). Overall, DMAA/10% TRIS materials released significantly more drug than HEMA materials (p < 0.05). The addition of MHP-βCD had a higher improvement in drug release than MβCD for both HEMA and DMAA/10% TRIS gels (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A high loading concentration of methacrylated CDs decreases overall drug delivery efficiency, which likely results from an unfavorable arrangement of the CDs within the polymer network leading to reduced binding of natamycin to the CDs. HEMA and DMAA/10% TRIS materials functionalized with MHP-βCD are more effective than those functionalized with MβCD to deliver natamycin.
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