Treatment of functional dyspepsia
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Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common reason a patient presents with upper gastrointestinal symptoms for medical care. Although treatment of FD remains expensive, the agents are rarely used in a systematic manner; the majority of treatments are empirical and the results short lived once therapy is ceased. This is partly due to the lack of consistent pathophysiologic markers in FD, so therapy is symptom driven. This review appraises the best evidence on available interventions. A structured scheme for deciding on appropriate therapies is to consider the possible putative pathophysiologic mechanisms. Eradicating Helicobacter pylori, if present, is a first-line strategy. In patients who have symptoms suggesting excessive gastric acid secretion, particularly epigastric pain, antisecretory agents are recommended. Prokinetics may confer benefits on symptoms suggestive of upper gastrointestinal dysmotility, like fullness or early satiety. However, their use is limited due to availability issues. The expanding field of psychologic therapies provides a promising avenue of treatment. Complementary medicines are now widely use and their benefits have been suggested in recent controlled trials. Emerging treatments include cholecystokinin 1 blockers, opioid receptor agonists, and serotonergic agents, although their application in FD is in the preliminary stages.
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