Novel predictors of overt nephropathy in subjects with type 1 diabetes. A nested case control study from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications cohort
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BACKGROUND: Predictors of diabetic nephropathy are only partly known and traditional risk factors do not adequately explain disease risk. We thus examined novel risk factors for overt nephropathy (ON) in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The EDC is a prospective study of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. When first seen (1986-1988), mean age was 28 and diabetes duration 19 years. In the subsequent 10 years, 56 of 485 subjects without ON in 1986-88 developed ON. An age, duration (+/-3 years), and sex-matched control was identified for 47 cases. Forty-two matched pairs had available stored plasma samples obtained prior to ON onset in cases, and complete standard risk factor data. RESULTS: Cases had a higher baseline albumin excretion rate (AER), HbA1, pulse rate, non-HDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, small LDL and lower eGDR and LDL particle size compared to controls (all P values<0.05). Multiple measures of immune complexes were increased in cases (P<0.05), whereas borderline elevations were seen for total antioxidant reserve (P=0.06) and retinol (P=0.08). Multivariably, other than AER, LDL particle size and IgG-IC were predictive beyond the standard predictors. CONCLUSION: Besides AER, the immunecomplexes and lipoprotein subclasses may provide additional information in the assessment of ON risk in type 1 diabetes.
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