Skeletal muscle is the major tissue for postprandial glucose disposal. Facilitated glucose uptake into muscle fibers is mediated by increases in surface membrane levels of the glucose transporter GLUT4 via insulin- and/or muscle contraction-mediated GLUT4 translocation. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle have been difficult to characterize at the cell biology level due to muscle tissue complexity. Muscle cell culture models have improved our understanding of GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport regulation, but in vitro muscle models lack many of the characteristics of mature muscle fibers. Thus, the molecular and cellular details of GLUT4 translocation in mature skeletal muscle are deficient. The objective of this review is to highlight how advances in recent experimental approaches translate into an enhanced understanding of the regulation of GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in mature skeletal muscle.