Management of myocardial infarction in children with Kawasaki disease
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Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of unknown cause affecting mainly neonates (infants) and young children. Despite treatment during the acute phase with intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin, up to 5% of those affected will develop coronary aneurysms, predisposing them to thrombotic complications that could result in myocardial infarction and/or death. There are treatment protocols in place for the management of myocardial infarction in adults, but the practical nature of medication is unclear in children. To date, there are no clinical trials or specific recommendations on the dosing of thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of myocardial infarction in Kawasaki pediatric patients. However, there are reports of the use of thrombolytic agents, including streptokinase, urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, as well as the monoclonal platelet glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, abciximab, that have been used to treat myocardial infarction in children with Kawasaki disease. The outcomes in these reports are varied. This review provides a summary of the available data on the management of children with Kawasaki disease suffering from myocardial infarction or thrombotic complications that can potentially lead to myocardial infarction.
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